The working mechanism of brushless motors

The electric motor from a 3.5″ floppy disk drive. The coils, arranged radially, are produced from copper wire coated with blue insulation. The balanced rotor (upper right) has been eliminated and switched upside-down. The grey ring inside its cup is a permanent magnet.
A brushless DC electrical motor (BLDC motor or BL motor), also called electronically commutated engine (ECM or EC engine) and synchronous DC motors, are synchronous motors powered by DC electricity via an inverter or switching power which produces an AC electric energy to drive each stage of the motor via a closed loop controller. The controller provides pulses of current to the engine windings that control the swiftness and torque of the engine.

The construction of a brushless engine system is normally similar to a long lasting magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), but may also be a switched reluctance motor, or an induction (asynchronous) motor.[1]

The advantages of a brushless engine over brushed motors are high capacity to weight ratio, high speed, electronic control, and lower maintenance. Brushless motors discover applications in such locations as computer peripherals (disk drives, printers), hand-held power tools, and vehicles ranging from model aircraft to automobiles.
In a typical DC electric motor, there are permanent magnets externally and a spinning armature on the inside. The long lasting magnets are stationary, therefore they are called the stator. The armature rotates, so that it is called the rotor.

The armature contains an electromagnet. When you operate electrical power into this electromagnet, it creates a magnetic field in the armature that attracts and repels the magnets in the stator. Therefore the armature spins through 180 degrees. To keep it spinning, you need to alter the poles of the electromagnet. The brushes manage this modify in polarity. They speak to two spinning electrodes mounted on the armature and flip the magnetic polarity of the electromagnet since it spins.
his setup works and is easy and cheap to manufacture, but it has a lot of problems:

The brushes eventually wear out.
As the brushes are producing/breaking connections, you get sparking and electrical noi
The brushes limit the utmost speed of the electric motor.
Having the electromagnet in the heart of the motor makes it harder to cool.
The utilization of brushes puts a limit about how many poles the armature can have.
With the advent of cheap computers and power transistors, it became possible to “turn the engine inside out” and get rid of the brushes. In a brushless DC electric motor (BLDC), you place the long lasting magnets on the rotor and you move the Transmission Chain electromagnets to the stator. You then use a computer (connected to high-power transistors) to charge up the electromagnets as the shaft turns. This system has all sorts of advantages:
Because a computer settings the motor rather than mechanical brushes, it’s more precise. The computer can also factor the acceleration of the motor in to the equation. This makes brushless motors more efficient.
There is absolutely no sparking and far less electrical noise.
There are no brushes to degrade.
With the electromagnets on the stator, they are very easy to cool.
You can have a lot of electromagnets on the stator for more precise control.
The only drawback of a brushless motor is its higher initial cost, but you could recover that cost through the greater efficiency over the life span of the motor.